The design evaluation tool helps us plan the instructional strategy. The instructional strategy is the detailed plan for the training/learning/instruction, and its purpose is to guide learners through mental states and activities that foster learning. Gagné outlined 9 stages of activities that enhance learning. They are called Gagné's 9 events of learning, and they are:
1. gain attention
2. inform learners of objectives
3. stimulate recall of prior learning
4. present the content
5. provided learning guidance
6. elicit performance (practice)
7. provide feedback about performance
8. assess performance
9. enhance retention and transfer to the performance context
The design phase typically concludes with developing the design document to share the decisions and strategies you have made at this stage with stakeholders. If all of them are accepted, you can move on to the development phase.
3. DEVELOP- this is the most creative phase of ADDIE. In this phase we produce the instructional materials, determine resources that will be used in the training, develop assessments, instructional guides, etc. Depending on the size of the company and complexity of the training, instructional designers may be involved in some parts of the development phase. At this stage, instructional designers can create prototypes. Prototypes are representative of other instructional material, and they can be used for review and approval from stakeholders.
4. IMPLEMENT- the goal of this phase is to prepare instructors, learners, and the learning environment. You can prepare a learner and instructor plan. In this phase, the instructional designers "hand over" the work to people who actually deliver and administer the training/instruction. It is a good idea to use this phase to prepare instructors for the new training though "train the trainers" sessions. Learners can also be prepared for the training through pre-training communication, prior knowledge/skills assessment, pre-training activities, etc. And, finally, instructional designers need to prepare the learning environment and ensure that the tools and conditions needed for the training are available and enable the knowledge transfer.
5. EVALUATE- in this phase we not only assess learner performance but also measure the effectiveness and quality of the instruction. As mentioned earlier, evaluation should ideally practiced at each stage of the ADDIE process as it provides valuable and timely feedback. Thus, there are 2 phases to the evaluation phase: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is the continual evaluation throughout all ADDIE phases. Dick and Carey outline 3 stages of formative evaluation: one-to-one, small group, and field trial. On the other hand, the purpose of summative evaluation, is to evaluate the worth of training/instruction. Kirckpatrick's model outlines 4 things to evaluate: reaction, learning, behaviour, and results.
Now that I have summarized all 5 phases of the ADDIE model, it is time to review the things we have learned so far, and then take at benefits and limitations of the ADDIE model, before we move on to take a deeper dive into the analysis stage.
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