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Addition and subtraction of fractions

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Remix of Lived experience of common health challenges

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Lived experience of common health challenges

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Test

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Hello!

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Student Engagement and the ARCS Model

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By the end of this lesson, you will be able to 

  • understand each aspect of the ARCS model of motivation
  • apply motivation principles to encourage student engagement 

 

What is the ARCS model of motivation?

[A description the model and its underlying theory]


 

Activity: Comprehension of ARCS model

[Learners answer a true/false set of questions.]


 

Why use the ARCS model of motivation?

[Reasons why the model is effective in language teaching.]


 

Activity: Advantage or Disadvantage?

[Learners categorize advantages and disadvantages of using the ARCS model.]


 

How can you use the ARCS model in your teaching?

[Starts with one or two scenarios or case studies which invite learners to come up with solutions to a specific problem]


 

Activity: Applying the ARCS Model

[Learners are asked to apply one aspect of ARCS in their own personal example.]


 

Now that you've reviewed Student Engagement and the ARCS model, you've completed the learning module, Key Learning Principles at Imaginary College.  Thank you for participating!

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Use of Strategies in Language Instruction

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By the end of this lesson, you will be able to 

  • define learning strategies 
  • review student strategies for learning discrete language deliverables

 

What are learning strategies?

[A description of learning strategies and background information on the Learning theory (Cognitivist) that brought them about.]


 

Activity: Understanding strategies

[Learners complete a fill-in-the-blanks exercise about strategies.]


 

Why use Strategies in Language Lessons?

[Reasons why strategies are useful.  Student testimonials would be useful here.]


 

Activity: How Strategies have helped you as a Learner

[Learners reflect on their own experiences as learners and which specific strategies helped them the most and why.  This could be a Discussion activity where other learners could comment and share experiences.]


 

How to use Strategies in lessons

[Suggestions of how to implement strategy use in lessons.  Instructor testimonials would be good here.]


 

Activity: Making use of Strategies

[Learners complete a matching activity where they match the correct strategy with a specific language task.]


 

Now that you've reviewed the Use of Strategies in Language Instruction, you're ready to move on to Student Engagement and the ARCS model!

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Scaffolding and the Zone of Proximal Development

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By the end of this lesson, you will be able to 

  • understand how the zone of proximal development relates to language teaching
  • identify possible types of scaffolding in specific language lessons
  • give a personal example of scaffolding within your teaching practice

 

What is the Zone of Proximal Development?

The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is a construct which represents what learners can accomplish.  Within the construct, we see that there are tasks which learners can complete independently, tasks which learners are not able to do by themselves, and between them, tasks which learners can complete with support.  It is within this in-between space where we as instructors play the biggest role in moving learners forward. 

The idea of the ZPD comes from the Constructivist Theory of Learning.  Within this theory, learning and learners have the following characteristics:

  • Learners use their experiences to build knowledge
  • Learning is student-centred
  • Any learning activity must be based in the social world
  • Learners must take responsibility in learning
Zone of proximal development

A visual representation of the Zone of Proximal Development


Activity: Watch the following video summarizing the ZPD and complete the comprehension questions below.

 

Zone of Proximal Development on Youtube

Why use the ZPD and Scaffolding?

The implications of the Constructivist Theory of Learning are that learners make meaning from their class experiences and that instructors must provide support and opportunities for knowledge and skills to grow.  

The use of Scaffolding will facilitate learning in the classroom and give learners confidence as they complete activities.  Think of scaffolding as a temporary support for learners as they master a concept or skill.  


Activity: Match the learning outcome with its respective scaffold.  That is, for each language task, find a scaffold that would support learners.

How does the ZPD relate to language learning?

Learning a language requires knowledge of the language and a variety of skills where learners work within the language.  There are receptive (listening, reading) and productive skills (speaking, writing).  As a language instructor, your goal is not only to provide learners with knowledge of the language but also improve learners' ability to use the language.  Therefore, scaffolding can play a major role in the learning activities and resources made available to your students.  

Think about a lesson you've had in the past where you've provided scaffolding.  Was it helpful to your students?  How did they use it and what did they learn?

 


Activity: Scaffolding and Your Teaching

Now it's time to reflect on your own teaching practice and how you can integrate scaffolding on a regular basis as part of the learning activities you create.

Now that you've reviewed the Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding, you're ready to move on to Use of Strategies in Language Instruction!

References

Ertmer, P.  & Newby, T. (2013). Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features From an Instructional Design Perspective  download. Performance Improvement Quarterly.

Rodriguez, M. [Mary Rodriguez]. (2014, March 5). Zone of Proximal Development [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Du6vqSOj7UU

 

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Learners will review scaffolding and explain its importance.

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Applying Design Tools & Strategies

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Design Tools & Strategies

In this lesson, you will learn about tools and strategies in the Design stage.

You will be able to

  • Use tools and strategies to complete design tasks

What is Bloom's Taxonomy?

Bloom's Taxonomy is a catalogue of skills from cognitively least to most complex.  As a learner moves from the left to the right, they demonstrate actions and skills which lead to mastery.

Bloom's Taxonomy

Evaluating Test Items

Let's look at another tool that can help with evaluating test items.  Use the following rubric from Dick & Carey (2015) to determine whether you're on the right track with the test items you have developed.

 

This is the last lesson in the module.

Thank you for completing it!  

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Learner will have a chance to apply tools and strategies to specific contexts.

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The Design stage with Real-world examples

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The Design Stage

In this lesson, you will

  • Learn about the different parts of the Design stage of ADDIE
  • Read about real-world examples of Design

 

Let's begin by learning the details of the Design stage in ADDIE.  Watch the following video and then fill in the blanks below.

Real-world examples

Now, we will look at two examples of real-world design problems.  For each of the design problems, highlight which of the steps in the design stage would pose a challenge and explain why.  For example, given a specific context, you may say that choosing a mode of delivery will be difficult if you do not know the extent to which your learners are techsavvy.  This would mean they may have trouble navigating online learning materials.

Example #1

A large sales & marketing firm has seen exponential growth over the past few years.  As a result of this growth, managers have been selected from strong performers who have been with the company from the beginning.  There are 15 managers in total working in different offices (within 5km of each other). These managers, however, have not been given any training to help them transition into their role.  Specifically, it has been found that these managers lack problem-solving skills to address everyday problems effectively.  Problems are usually dealt with using temporary or short-term solutions, without addressing underlying issues.  In addition to the skills gap (poor problem-solving), an instructional goal has been developed and the learning solution must address it:

Instructional goal:  Managers will use effective problem-solving to address issues in their respective teams.

Example #2

The instructional design and training team in an aerospace company has been tasked with creating a training for airline pilots about new software changes for commercial jets.  The software development was outsourced to another company and along with the software, a detailed manual has been provided.  It is expected that the training is based on the manual.  Pilots are expected to complete the training in order to be able to fly jets with the software upgrades.  It is important to note that pilots are seen as external clients.  Here are some characteristics of these pilots:

  • Each has 5,000+ hours of flight experience
  • The pilots are located worldwide
  • Pilots have done similar training modules before; training is generally viewed as a hoop to jump through and mainly a formality
  • Pilots have 1 paid day of training

The following instructional goal has been determined:   Pilot will be able to safely fly jets with software upgrades.

Now that you have learned the steps in the Design stage and examined a few real-world scenarios, we can move on to specific tools and strategies which aid design!  

Next lesson: Applying tools and strategies in Design

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Learners will review parts of the Design stage of ADDIE and look at real-world examples

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Overview of the ADDIE model

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The ADDIE model

In this lesson, you will

  1. Learn about the ADDIE model and its stages
  2. Explore the benefits and drawbacks of the ADDIE model

 

What is the ADDIE model?

ADDIE is an acronym for the framework that guides the course development process.  Watch the following video on the ADDIE model to find out more.  Then complete the matching exercise below which describes each ADDIE stage.

 

Addie Model animation from Don Lowing on Vimeo.

Why use the ADDIE model?

The purpose of the ADDIE model is to provide a framework to support the course development process.  Clearly defined stages guide course developers along the course development journey.  The model is simple and easy to remember.  It has been employed for decades and is an established and accepted foundation for instructional design.  Historically, it has been associated with design quality. 

The nice thing about ADDIE is it can be used in all types of projects, such as a learning intervention for AODA compliance in customer service or a training module on surgical devices for medical professionals.  Furthermore, this model aids in project management and doesn't require special training in project management techniques.

ADDIE also provides a holistic framework, which considers the relationships between stages rather than a series of self-contained sequential steps four course development.  What was done in previous stages impacts subsequent stages.  With that being said, the model also facilitates continuous course improvement and can be used to create prototypes. 

There are several tools that accompany the stages of ADDIE.  For example, templates for lesson plans can be helpful in the Design and Development stages.

 

Now that you can identify the stages of the ADDIE model and the model's advantages and disadvantages, we can examine the Design stage in more detail!  

Next lesson: Design in course development

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This provides a brief overview of the ADDIE model in order to provide context for the Design stage (2nd step) within the model.

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